Simulating natural selection over subsequent generations of Oniscus asellus, the fittest selected male and female bugs in different diet was used to analyze the concentration of proteins in their body along their frequency in continuous  mapped generations over hundred seed values, further DNA Fingerprinting of these selected bugs revealed a relationship with their parents originated from different geographic areas/borders. It was observed that variation   in microevolutionary forces caused variation in macromolecules by setting up a gene-environment interaction which deduced natural selection in order to define adaptive radiation and speciation by micro-evolutionary forces.

Cancer remains as one of the most dreaded diseases with millions of deaths each year worldwide. There has been a continuous wave of advances in cancer treatment. This study brings out a novel approach for cancer treatment using light explained by Photodynamic therapy (PDT) which is described as inserting an inactive form of a medicament or carrier system in a target issue which is activated on illumination with light. The resulting photochemical and photobiological processes cause irreversible damage of tumour tissues with minimized loss of healthy tissues.

Fungal contamination is a serious issue in most tropical countries. Indonesia, one of the largest tropical regions, is suffering from fungal contamination in various sectors which may damage the development of the whole nation. In counteracting this problem, chemicals have been used to inhibit the growth of various fungi due to their compatibility. However, these chemicals are composed of harmful and toxic compounds that may not only eliminate fungi but also risk human health. Indonesia is also a country which is rich in marine life and abundant in sea resources. Wastes from these sea resources may become a potential source in solving fungal contamination and reducing unnecessary waste caused by the consumption of these resources. Therefore, the aim of this research is to utilize crab shell waste as an alternative to inhibit the contamination and growth of Aspergillus niger.

Nowadays, people suffering from obesity/cholesterol are often heard. This disease is due to the excess of mainly carbohydrate and lipid in an individual's diet and the lack of expenditure of energy such as exercise. Therefore, the patawali plant, or its scientific name, Tinospora crispa is believed to be a traditional cure for the problem. A sample of patawali plant (Tinospora crispa) juice, lime juice, ginger juice and grapefruit juice was prepared for the experiment. Next, fresh chicken fats are chosen and prepared as they contain a high value of cholesterol. The chicken fat was rinsed with water, dried using a filter paper and then immersed in the juice samples for a duration of 1 hour. The initial and final mass of chicken fat was recorded. At the end of the experiment, it is found that ginger and Tinospora crispa shows significant in reducing the mass of chicken fat. Thus, it can be concluded that Tinospora crispa and ginger has the potential to be the future cure for obesity.

India being a sub-tropical country has an optimum temperature and humidity conditions for mosquito breeding and thus is affected by repeated epidemic like conditions created due to mosquito-borne diseases. A major chunk of these diseases namely dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever etc is spread by the species Aedes aegypti. The key identifying features of this species are: a smallish, dark mosquito with conspicuous white markings and banded legs, the proboscis is all black although the palps are white tipped, wings are dark scaled, hind legs with femur pale scaled for basal three-quarters with dark scales. With the large scale increase in mosquito-borne diseases, it becomes imperative to work for better control methods and repellents. Most repellents today aiming to increase the duration of action are using chemicals like DEET (N, N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide) which stand effectively for longer durations. However, it becomes a matter of rising concern of the serious drawbacks of long term exposure to such chemicals. The experiment, therefore, aims to identify natural repellents in the form of natural oils namely citronella oil, lemongrass oil, celery seed oil, lavender oil, and cinnamon oil and then comparing their effect with the chemical DEET using Contact Irritancy Assay on laboratory-reared mosquitoes. Further, the oil was tested for its duration of repellency using Human Bait Technique.

Allicin is the active substance in plants of the leek family, like garlic and bear leek, and supposed to have many health benefits. It is formed through contact of alliin and alliinase, only when plant cells are damaged. Published data concerning the properties and effects of the molecule are incoherent. The aim of this project was to study the effects of extraction, temperature and pH on the stability of allicin to examine the suitability as an antibacterial compound.

he undermentioned theory is aimed to simplify the study of elements described in the periodic table. The theory is formulated to ascertain the location of the elements as described in the periodic table without using the periodic table. The theory provides the simpler medium to find out the group number as well as period number which can be further utilized to study properties of elements.

The undermentioned method focuses on temporarily disrupting the tight junctions between the endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier, as well as temporarily permeabilize the cell membrane of endothelial cells and the cells in the target tissue and in doing so, facilitating drug uptake into the target tissue.

The purpose of the research is to study the complexity of the higher dimensions, by understanding the existence of events in our timeline.The idea of existence of higher dimensions is creating great interest among the scientists.The purpose is to have a better understanding of the variation in past, present and future wrt. other objects and to find out how our timeline in higher dimensions would exist.Using a spectroscope, this study analyzed that the amount of energy transferred from one event to the other event is same. We used regression model and statistical analysis to show the same, and proved our observations mathematically. The results concluded that past, present and future don’t have same masses and categorized the final structure of our timeline.The study definitively answers the question as to why two objects exist in the same event.

:Firstly, a variable dose of Cytochalasin D (CytoD) was introduced to change the peripheral curvature of cells. CytoD is an inhibitor of actin polymerisation, and it weakens cellular cytoskeleton causing adoption of a spherical liposomal shape. The resulting cell shape was characterised using Spinning-Disk Confocal Microscopy, and Surface Reflection Interference Contrast Microscopy (SRIC). This procedure was optimised for the dose of CytoD. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRF) was used to obtain videos of the waves, and they were analysed using kymographs made in ImageJ to determine wave properties such as frequency, wavelength and speed. Finally, Mathematica was used to plot spatial intensity distribution graphs of each point within each cell. This was used to determine if FBP17 waves are curvature-sensitive.

:Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA,C22:6n3) is a type of polyunsaturated fatty acids in omega 3 group that found in lipid of marine fish, fresh-water fish and some grains. Briefly, The DHA is produced by altering of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n3) to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, C22:5n3) using delta 2 Desaturase (Δ2) and delta 6 Elongase (E6) enzymes. Thereafter, the DPA is changed to DHA by 2 pathways (i) beta-oxidation pathway or (ii) delta 4 desaturase (Δ4) pathway. Previous results from Gosalawit 2013 have shown that the β-oxidation pathway is not efficient to produce DHA in P. pastoris. Therefore, Δ4 pathway was tried to observe if it is more productive for DHA production.

The increase of energy demand nowadays is a global issue. Thus research for developing alternative energy that is more eco friendly is also increasing significantly especially continued research of solar cells. In Indonesia, the Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC), the third generation of Solar cells that use Ruthenium as the dye, has been developed to produce electricity by Researchers of the Indonesian Institute of Science. Despite the fact that DSSC Ruthenium performs well in producing electricity, it still cannot be mass produced as ruthenium is a rare material that is not easy to get in Indonesia. Thus the need to develop a local material that can be used as a dye for DSSC to replace ruthenium. As Indonesia has many species of plants and their leaves waste contain pigment still not optimally used, the aim of this research is to examine the potency of developing natural dye from Jati, Filicium, and Rambutan leaves waste to substitute ruthenium in DSSC.

Profound and selective cytotoxicity, penetration through the blood brain barrier along with lack of neurotoxic effects coupled with no side effects in humans at a dose of 3 mg/kg administered actually make the avarol chemical scaffold (Figure 1) an ideal candidate in design of new CNS drugs [1]. This study aimed to screen in vitro structure-activity relationship (along with selectivity) using avarol (followed by its structural elements) and the human malignant glioma U-251 MG c

Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of aging. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as collagen fibres which is glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. These compounds are responsible to make up collagen, which is a protein that can be found approximately 30% in the human body. Photoaging are changes to skin induced by chronic UVA and UVB exposure. UVB rays are a primary mutagen that can penetrate through the epidermal layer of the skin, resulting in DNA mutations. These mutations. may be clinically related to specific signs of photoaging such as wrinkling and damage of elastin and collagen where the body cannot produce sufficient collagen to replace the amount of collagen that has degraded. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in increasing dermal collagen. In this review, we discuss the anti-aging properties of sea cucumber extracts.

The research focuses on combined administration of simvastatin and DMXAA on in vitro model on tumor micro environmental cells, Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to support Angiogenesis which is a crucial step for melanoma development.

Fungal Infections by candida is increased drastically,the research finds the possibility to find an alternative, from a natural source with a higher activity against the four types of Candida genre. In this project it was possible to find isolated natural compounds with a better potential that the commercial drug Fluconazole using HPLC and Mass Spectroscopy techniques.

It is best-known that in rats and humans, the metallic element markedly inhibits the absorption of iron once each mineral is present within the little intestine. The interaction between iron and Ca was studied in two species, rats and dogs. feminine rats were orally treated with six mg calcium as metallic element citrate-malate followed by seventy ug iron as metal sulfate labeled with [59]Fe. Doses were separated by zero to a hundred and eighty min. Iron absorption was measured by the victimization of the whole-body atom retention technique. we have a tendency to determined that iron and calcium should be separated by a minimum of one hour to forestall a negative impact of calcium on iron absorption. This info was wont to style tablets containing iron (radiolabeled with [59]Fe) and Ca. Iron tablets were created by enteric coating iron with or while not ascorbic acid (attention of non-heme iron absorption). The enteric coat delayed the discharge of iron into the little internal organ by preventing iron dissolution within the abdomen for a minimum of one hour. Iron absorption from these tablets and uncoated tablets was measured in dogs victimization an assay of [59]Fe incorporation into hemoproteins. Calcium inhibited the absorption of uncoated iron-ascorbic acid by concerning 50~. However, once the enteric-coated iron-ascorbic acid tablets were dosed with metallic element tablets, iron absorption wasn't inhibited. We conclude that Ca inhibits iron absorption in rats and dogs and that this inhibition may be overcome once the 2 minerals square measure separated by a minimum of one hour, which can be achieved by enteric coating the iron supply

Studies on human subjects have shown that Ca (Ca) will inhibit iron (Fe) absorption, regardless of whether or not it's given as Ca salts or in dairy farm products. This has caused concern as increased Ca intake usually is usually recommended for kids and girls, similar populations that are in danger of metal deficiency. However, a radical review of studies on humans during which Ca intake was considerably increased for long periods shows no changes in hematologic measures or indicators of iron standing. Thus, the repressing impact additionally be|is also} of short period and there also is also counteractive mechanisms. The interaction between Ca and metal is also a lumenal event, poignant metal uptake through DMT1 (divalent metal transporter 1) at the top membrane. However, it's additionally attainable that inhibition happens throughout metal transfer into circulation, suggesting roles for the serosal bourgeois ferroportin (FPN) and hephaestin. We explored these prospects in human enteral Caco-2 cells cultivated in monolayers. Iron transport (fifty nine Fe) and expression of DMT1, FPN, and hephaestin were assessed when one.5 and four hours with zero or a hundred μM CaCl 2. though Ca failed to have an effect on metal uptake or DMT1 expression at one.5 hours, FPN abundance at the basolateral membrane remittent, leading to increased cellular metal retention and remittent metal efflux. when four hours, DMT1 and FPN expression increased and there was an increased FPN.

he undermentioned theory states the resemblance between the stable and unreactive model of atom with the stable model of solar system. The theory gives the strong significance about the atomic models to be true and applicable on gravitational and macroscopic models.The similarity is defined by using pre-existing theories from chemistry and physics like but not limited to Dalton’s theory, Quantum theory and Kepler'stheory.



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